The rules and regulations of flying with plants will depend on the plant type, the airline you are flying with and the laws of the destinations you are flying from and to. Discover this information in our guide, so you can see if you can take your plants with you on the plane. If you are looking for other items which you can or can not take on a plane, check out our guide to prohibited items.
Most airlines will base their regulations on the national agriculture department for the area. For example. most American airlines will base their rules on TSA guidance. When travelling on a domestic flight in the USA, most plants will be allowed on the plane as either hand luggage or checked luggage. Like any other item of baggage, they will have to undergo security screening inside the x-ray machine and also be able to fit within the normal hand or checked baggage restrictions such as fitting in the overhead compartment or in a bag under your seat.
There are some species that are not allowed into the US from international territories. Depending on where they originated from, some plants are able to be brought into the US without permission, providing they are declared, inspected and free of pests. It is up to the US inspectors to have the final decision on if you are allowed to bring a plant into the US. The reason for some species being prohibited is that they can often carry foreign pests and diseases that can harm American agriculture or the environment.
There are some plants and seeds that are/aren't allowed into the US from Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. See the table below for more details:
Items ALLOWED into the mainland (after inspection):
Flowers (fresh, cut or dried)
Plant cuttings and plants without soil
Most fruits, vegetables and herbs
Items NOT ALLOWED into the mainland:
Cut citrus leaves (fresh)
Cottonseed, cotton and cotton cuttings
Citrus and citrus-related plants
Plants in soil
Pulpy seeds or nuts
There are some plants and seeds that are/aren't allowed into the mainland US or Alaska from Hawaii. See the table below for more details:
Items ALLOWED into the mainland (after inspection):
Coconut, Irish or white potatoes, pineapple, papaya, abiu, atemoya, banana, curry leaf, dragon fruit, longan, lychee, mangosteen, rambutan, starfruit, sweet potato
Plants and cuttings (some require certification)
Wood (including driftwood and sticks) and wood roses (dried)
Fresh flowers, leis, and foliage, except citrus or citrus-related flowers, leaves or other plants
Seed leis and seed jewellery
Items NOT ALLOWED into the mainland:
All other fresh fruit and vegetables
Berries of any kind
Cactus plants or cactus plant parts
Cotton and cotton bolls
Fresh flowers of jane vine or Mauna Loa
Kikania and fresh pandanus
Seeds with fruit clinging and fresh seed pods
Soil or any plants in soil
Sweet potato (raw)
Plants and Plant Parts for Growing, Seeds, and Fresh Cut Flowers and Greenery
Many plants and plant seeds are allowed into the United States from foreign countries. However, it depends on the plant, the country of origin and its intended use. If you are intending to bring in a plant from overseas, you should contact the APHIS (United States Department of Agriculture - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service) for more information about if you're allowed it and if you should obtain a permit or other documents.
Plants and Plant Parts for Growing (Nursery Stock, Roots, Bulbs, etc.)
Because bringing soil into the U.S. is prohibited, bringing plants inside soil is prohibited. However, you can still bring 12 or fewer plants if they meet the following conditions:
Travellers are prohibited from bringing tree or shrub seeds.
Seeds from fruit, vegetables, flowers and other types are allowed if they meet the following conditions:
Fresh Cut Flowers and Greenery
Freshly cut flowers and greenery must be presented at the first point of entry for inspection by U.S. Customs and Border Protection. It is up to the officer to determine if the cuttings are free of pest or diseases and to see if it meets entry requirements.
Make sure you follow guidelines and check that you are allowed to bring the species of a plant into the US, including from what country it is from.
Check the guidelines to see if you need any documentation for the plant. This may be a permit or fee documentation.
It is recommended that you keep with you any receipts and original packaging of the plants, to prove their species and their country of origin.
Make sure that the plant is free of soil. You can do this by rinsing it off outside and brushing off the soil. Wrap the roots in damp newspaper and secure them in a plastic bag to prevent them from drying out.
Declare any form of the plant at customs. Even if you are sure it is allowed, you will need to declare it as the customs and border officers have the final decision if you are allowed to bring it into the country. There are specially-trained dogs at the airport who can help sniff out plants in luggage and carry-on items.
Although the general rule is to follow TSA and US Border and Customs advice, there are some state-specific guidelines that you may need to be aware of.
The Californian Department of Food and Agriculture have some state-specific guidelines which mean that you will have to check the rules, even when entering on a U.S. domestic flight. Citrus plants are prohibited from bringing into California, with pine, oak, fruit and nut trees being strongly discouraged from bringing into the state.
To bring house plants into California, they must be:
There are strict rules and controls on the plant products that can be bought into the European Union (EU). This is because of potentially harmful pests and diseases that could be bought into the region and devastate the environment, landscapes, crops and agriculture.
You can bring any plant products into a European country, providing they were grown in an EU country, and are free from pests and diseases and are for your own use and consumption.
The following plants are prohibited if they are intended for planting:
For the purposes of this guide, the following countries are classed as EU countries:
Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Channel Islands, Cyprus (but only goods from areas effectively controlled by the Government of the Republic of Cyprus), Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland (Republic of), the Isle of Man, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal (including Madeira and the Azores), Romania, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the UK, the Vatican City.
For these purposes, Gibraltar and the Canary Islands do not count as being part of the European Union.
Some products are banned completely or are restricted by weight and quantity. If you wish to bring in a restricted product, you must obtain the relevant phytosanitary documents from the country where the plant was grown.
Seeds for planting
Does not include potato seeds.
You are allowed to bring 5 x retail packed packets of restricted seeds. However, some seeds are not restricted, but you can contact the Animal and Plant Health Agency for a complete list.
Seeds of Fraxinus (Ash) and Castanea (Sweet chestnut) for planting
These seeds are prohibited to bring into an EU country for planting.
Soil is not permitted into an EU country from a country outside the EU.
Ash, Citrus and Vine plants
These plants are not permitted in any EU country.
Other trees and plants with or without soil
These plants are not permitted in EU countries unless it is a country listed below:
Bulbs, corms, tubers and rhizomes for planting (excluding potatoes)
From certain countries (listed below), you are permitted 2kg of combined weight per person. If a country is not listed, then they are not permitted.
Cut flowers and foliage
You are permitted one bouquet, of up to 50 stems, of restricted cut flowers. For details of which flowers are restricted, see the Animal and Plant Health Agency.
Parts of trees used as decoration (e.g. wreaths, Christmas trees)
You are limited to a maximum of restricted foliage forming 1 spray, wreath or 1 cut in the countries listed below. Also a Christmas Tree up to 3m in height. In all other countries, this is not permitted.
Natural wood and non-manufactured wood
For the listed countries, you are permitted 5 pieces without bark, each measuring no more than 1m in length. However, certain wood types are restricted - contact the Forestry Commission for more information. If the country is not listed below, you are not permitted it.
The restricted countries for this section are:
Albania, Algeria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Canary Islands, Ceuta, Cyprus (the area not effectively controlled by the Government of the Republic of Cyprus), Egypt, Faroe Islands, Gibraltar, Iceland, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Jamrahiriya, Liechtenstein, Macedonia (Former Yugoslav Republic of), Melilla, Moldovia (Republic of), Morocco, Norway, Russia (but only parts of – please check), Serbia and Montenegro, Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine
Australia has strict regulations surrounding the import of plants and plant products into the country. This is because of the risk of the introduction of weeds, pests and diseases into the Australian natural environment, which has the potential to harm food security and the economy.
The Australian Government, under the Department of Agriculture, have created an online tool where you can search for the good you wish to transport to find out the following:
The BICON (Biosecurity Import Conditions System) search tool can be found here.
The guidelines on this page are to be used for a general summary and outline of what you may be able to take on a plane with you. The laws and government regulations can change at any time, and often suddenly without notice. Therefore, contact the relevant authority, such as the Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA) in the EU, if you are unsure.