Hepatitis can cause inflammation and affect your liver's ability to function. You're most likely to get hepatitis A from contaminated food and water or from close contact with a person who is infected.
Recommended when visiting: All countries, especially in the tropics or those with low levels of sanitation.
Hepatitis B is an infection of the liver caused by a virus that's spread through blood and body fluids.
Recommended when visiting: All countries, especially Southeast Asia, the Middle East, the South Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean.
Tetanus, Diptheria and Pertussis (TDaP)
Recommended when visiting: This is present worldwide so it is recommended for travel to any country.
Influenza, commonly known as the flu. Risk depends somewhat on the time of year and destination. In the Southern Hemisphere, influenza activity typically occurs during April – September. In the Northern Hemisphere, the flu season can begin as early as October and can last as late as April or May. Risk can be increased when travelling as part of large tourist groups (e.g., on cruise ships).
Recommended when visiting: All countries
Recommended when visiting: Present worldwide but more common in South America, Central America, Asia, Africa and the Pacific Islands.
Malaria occurs in more than 100 countries and is a mosquito-borne infectious disease.
Recommended when visiting: Africa, South America, parts of Caribbean (Dominican Republic and Haiti) and Asia
Recommended when visiting: South America, Middle East, Africa and Asia
Recommended when visiting: Some African countries (D.R. Congo Egypt and Morocco)
Recommended when visiting: Africa, South Asia, Southeast Asia and the Middle East, specifically when travelling to Afghanistan, Nigeria or Pakistan
Recommended when visiting: Africa and the Middle East
Japanese encephalitis is a disease spread through mosquito bites. It is rare in tourists, but important to protect against.
Recommended when visiting: Asia and Southeast Asia, especially if travelling to China, regions of Nepal, northern Burma, eastern and southern parts of India, northern Sri Lanka, northern Thailand, Laos and Vietnam.
Yellow fever is an acute viral disease transmitted by infected mosquitoes, endemic in tropical and warmer climates including South America, the Caribbean, and Africa.
Recommended when visiting: All destinations within South America and tropical Africa
Tick Borne Encephalitis
Recommended when visiting: Mainly found in parts of Europe such as Russia, Austria, Hungary, the Balkans, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Scandinavia. It can also be found in parts of eastern China.